Sunday, December 29, 2019

Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing ( Emdr )

and is encouraged to process the trauma from different perspectives using cues from the therapist. The patient also repeatedly engages with their fear triggers.177 Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing (EMDR). EMDR is an extension of this PET in which the patient is exposed to the traumatic memories coincident with a small distraction. In the original version of EMDR, the distraction consisted of hand movements of the therapist to direct movements of the patient?s eyes. More recent versions of EMDR include other types of distractions such as hand-tapping or audio cues.160,178 Results with EMDR have been obtained from a few studies showing large symptom reduction in military populations,179 including results maintained at 9-month follow-up and 78% of completers no longer meeting criteria for PTSD.180 However, other studies conducted were either in very small samples or over only a few EMDR sessions.181-183 As such, much of the evidence supporting EMDR is still from studies in the general population.184 Therapeutic Commonalities. Each of the PTSD treatments discussed above focuses on the idea that learning to reprocess the old emotional memory will allow the patient to develop less dramatically fearful responses to triggers and helps the patient extinguish responses to the original memory through re-experiencing the trauma in a safe setting. Trauma based treatments center around extinction of the original emotional, fearful response. This neurological response will beShow MoreRelatedEye Movement Desensitization And Reprocessing ( Emdr )1675 Words   |  7 Pages157). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) was developed in 1987 by Francine Shapiro and has been â€Å"mainly used in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder† (Seidler Wagner, 2006, p. 1515). EMDR is a form of therapy in which the patient recalls the memories associated with the traumatic event while undergoing â€Å"external oscillatory stimulation† (Taylor, Thordarson, Maxfield, Fedoroff, Lovell, Ogrodniczuk, 2003, p. 331). This technique uses alternating sets of eye movementsRead MoreEye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing ( Emdr ) And Cognitive Processing Therapy ( Cpt )2370 Words   |  10 Pages This paper will examine, compare and contrast Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing (EMDR) and Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) in the case of Joe, a fictional client with post-traumatic stress disorder from two tours of combat duty as a Marine Corps sniper in the Middle East, without the use of psychotropic medications. EMDR uses side-to-side eye movements in a one-on-one session with a clinician while the client focuses on a distressing memory until he or she reports reduced symptomologyRead MorePreoperative Anesthesia, Pharmacotherapy And Mirror Therapy1053 Words   |  5 Pagestherapies emerging from studies have shown promising results. One such treatment therapy is eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). In a clinical study done by de Roos et al. (2010), ten participants with leg amputations (one participant had both legs amputated) who experienced PLP which ranged from, â€Å"aching, squeezing, cramping, shooting, burning, stinging, and stabbing† pa in, to be treated using EMDR (de Roos et al., 2010, p. 66). De Roos et al. theorized that: Painful conditions, suchRead MoreEye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Patients1663 Words   |  7 Pagespreparing the client for the processing of disturbing memories through various means. A therapeutic relationship between clinician and client is established by educating the client about the problems they are having and by explaining the process of EMDR. In addition, the clinician teaches the client a series of self-calming techniques that help clients maintain â€Å"dual awareness† during the following stages. Once a relationship is established and the client has been taught self-calming techniques, theRead MoreThe Effects Of Eye Movement Reprocessing And Desensitization1596 Words   |  7 Pages Lone Star College - CyFair The Effects of Eye Movement Reprocessing and Desensitization in Posttraumatic Stress Victims Kaitlyn Schenk PSYC 2301.5012 Laura Renee October 19, 2016 An estimated 5.2 million adults will suffer from Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) every year. Every PTSD victim encounters different experiences and symptoms that coincide with their trauma. Many forms of treatment and coping mechanisms have been attempted in the past decade to produce relief. There haveRead MoreSymptoms And Treatment Of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd )1570 Words   |  7 Pagesovercoming of victims’ symptoms. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a new treatment option that is available to PTSD victims. â€Å"While the treatment has met with skepticism, meta-analyses have indicated that EMDR is superior to most other treatments and is as effective as the best alternative treatment, i.e., cognitive-behavioral therapy. EMDR is now advocated as a treatment of choice for PTSD in many Western countries† (Van den Hout 177-178). EMDR gives PTSD victims long-lastingRead MoreExamining Effectiveness Of Treatment Strategies Used With Survivors Of Rape1357 Words   |  6 Pagesin treating posttraumatic stress disorder and common comorbid disorders, like depression, anxiety, guilt, and anger (Resick, Williams, Suvak, Monson, Gradus, 2012, p. 202). Existential therapy, person-centered counseling, and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing are underlying philosophies and techniques investigated. It can prove difficult to find empirically-supported treatments because the research is often not explicitly experimental, and there is a limitation to sampling. ExaminingRead MoreSymptoms And Symptoms Of Ptsd1383 Words   |  6 Pagestherapeutic effect. Longer periods of treatment have not been found to be more effective. Frommberger (2014) noted that Foa determined the best evidence-based therapy to be cognitive behavioral therapy, exposure therapy, and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy. Erford and colleagues (2016) informed that Sherman’s (1998) research on cognitive behav ior therapy (CBT) found a significant effect size. However, Erford et al. (2016) also pointed out that even though group therapyRead MoreAnalysis : Eye Movement Desensitization And Reprocessing1348 Words   |  6 PagesSarah Bennett English IV Mrs. Battle 17 April 2015 EMDR Therapy â€Å"Trauma is defined as anything that has happened to you that changed the way you feel about yourself or about your place and safety in the world† (FIX). For many years, people have been using Cognitive Behavior Therapy and other kinds of exposure therapy to treat conditions such as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, and psychosis. People who find events or memories that disable the abilityRead MoreThe Effects Of Extreme Abuse And Neglect Is The Development Of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd )1518 Words   |  7 Pages(NIMH 2010). Purpose The purpose of the study was to determine if Eye Movement Desensitation Reprocessing is effective with children who suffer from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder using randomized control trials (RCT). The researchers submitted two hypotheses. The first being was whether or not EMDR is an effective intervention with children or youth that have a history of trauma. And the second was whether or not EMDR produce more positive results than the trauma-focused intervention. Treatment

Saturday, December 21, 2019

Schizophreni A Mental Disorder Essay - 1427 Words

Introduction Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that often appears in someone’s early adulthood stage, but it can emerge at any point of time in life. This disorder affects the brain and is considered as psychosis, which is a type of mental illness that makes people with it unable to differentiate between reality and imagination. The first person to identify schizophrenia as a mental illness was German physician Dr. Emile Kraepelin in 1887 and categorized it as dementia that occurs early in life. The term ‘schizophrenia’ was made by Swiss psychiatrist Paul Eugen Bleuler in 1910 because Kraepelin’s definition of schizophrenia is misleading – schizophrenia is not dementia happening in the early stage of life. It is a derivation from Greek words ‘schizo’ and ‘phren’, which means ‘split’ and ‘mind’. However, schizophrenia is not related to multiple personality disorder. Schizophrenia has been there sinc e old Pharaonic Egypt. A description of an illness resembling schizophrenia was found in the Ebers papyrus which was written in 1550 BC. In Greek and Roman literature, the people were aware of psychotic disorders but there are no descriptions that fit the characteristics of schizophrenia. Old theories considered mental illnesses as the effect of evil possession of the body, and the best treatment is to exorcise the patient by any means – safe methods like exposing the patient to a certain genre of music or deadly methods such as drilling the patient’s skull to release the evilShow MoreRelatedSchizophreni A Mental Disorder1048 Words   |  5 Pages Schizophrenia is in a mental disorder classification on its own. Schizophrenia is said to possibly date as far back as Egyptian times. Although it may date back to ancient times, the first belief was that the person was possessed by a demon or was being punished for not obeying the God’s wishes. Schizophrenia has not always had that name. The term used before Eugene Bleuber renamed it was called dementia praecox. Arnold Pick was actually the first one to name the disorder dementia praecox but wasRead MoreSchizophreni A Mental Disorder904 Words   |  4 PagesSchizophrenia is a chronic mental illness that affects approximately 1% of people around the world, and more than two million citizens in the U.S. alone (Dryden-Edwards). This illness is seen to affect men more often than woman. Schizophrenia is one of many psychotic mental disorders and usually presents with symptoms including behavior, thought, and social issues. Many people would describe schizophrenia more simply as a mental disorder that is characterized by abnormal social behavio r which leavesRead MoreSchizophreni A Mental Disorder Essay1278 Words   |  6 PagesSchizophrenia is a mental disorder that takes over a patient’s body and mind. Schizophrenia’s causes and mechanisms remain poorly understood, and the most common treatments do little to restore patients health (Kurtz 7). Schizophrenia affects the person’s brain and ability on to think and function. People with Schizophrenia have voices inside their heads telling them to do things they don t want to. People with schizophrenia are not eligible to control the things they do or say. Schizophrenia isRead MoreSchizophreni A Distinct Mental Disorder862 Words   |  4 PagesSchizophrenia Deemed as the disorder with no preference, schizophrenia has followed mankind since the times of Ancient Egypt (2000, Okasha) under the broad term of â€Å"madness† yet it was not officially recognized until 1887 when Dr. Emile Kraepelin issued it a distinct mental disorder (2012, Burton). Widely thought to be a split personality disorder, it has in fact nothing to do with multiple personality conditions but instead, schizophrenia is an extreme thought disorder that causes disconnected thoughtsRead MoreSchizophreni A Severe Mental Disorder2078 Words   |  9 PagesDefinition Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by some, but not necessarily all, of the following features: emotional blunting, intellectual deterioration, social isolation, disorganized speech, behavior delusions, and hallucinations. Delusions are beliefs that are not true, like people are trying to hurt them, believing other people can read their mind, or they have special abilities or powers. Hallucinations are hearing voices that are not there. People with schizophrenia mayRead MoreSchizophreni A Severe Mental Disorder2469 Words   |  10 PagesDefinition Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by some, but not necessarily all, of the following features: emotional blunting, intellectual deterioration, social isolation, disorganized speech, behavior delusions, and hallucinations. Delusions are beliefs that are not true, like people are trying to hurt them, believing other people can read their mind, or they have special abilities or powers. Hallucinations are hearing voices that are not there. People with schizophreniaRead MoreSchizophreni A Severe And Disabling Mental Disorder924 Words   |  4 PagesSchizophrenia is a severe and disabling mental disorder, affecting approximately one percent of the world s adult population. Researcher say there are several of causes for this disorder, for instance genetics, substance use, or even the environment. As research began we found that, â€Å"schizophrenia can occur at any age, the average age begin in the late teens to the early 20s for men, and the late 20s to early 30s f or women† (NAMI). As said this disorder can go both ways with either women or men

Friday, December 13, 2019

The Minimum Wage Debate Free Essays

Minimum wage is defined as the lowest amount that employers can legally pay their workers per hour of labor. Most states have laws in place to enforce the minimum wage; those that do not are subject to the federal minimum wage of $7. 25. We will write a custom essay sample on The Minimum Wage Debate or any similar topic only for you Order Now There are both benefits and drawbacks of this type of policy. Many supporters of a minimum wage believe it increases the standard of living and reduced poverty. Those that oppose a minimum wage believe it will increase unemployment and harms unskilled laborers. Introduction The Fair Labor Standards Act, passed in 1938, mandated a federal minimum wage that now applies to most work and most workers, in the United States. Originally the wage was set at 25 cents, the minimum wage has risen occasionally since 1938 to its current hourly level of $7. 25, where it has remained since 2009. When the minimum wage was roughly half the average wage, in the late 1960’s, full-time, year round minimum wage earnings for one worker lifted a family of three from poverty. Today, a minimum wage worker lives on $3,000 less than the poverty line – and the minimum wage is worth only 37 percent of the average wage (Owens, 2013). Minimum wage laws were established with certain goals in mind. Minimum wage was initially established to reduce poverty. Establishing a minimum wage in the United States removed sweat shops and insured individuals were paid properly for their work. Minimum wage additionally protects younger workers and minorities from being paid less than others. Support for an Increase in the Minimum Wage The positive effects of minimum wage are plentiful; it is believed that the minimum wage increases the standard of living for the poorest and most vulnerable classes in society and raises the average. It also stimulates consumption, by putting more money in the hands of low-income people who spend their entire paychecks. Minimum wage increases the work ethic of those who earn very little, as employers demand more return from the higher cost of hiring these employees. It decreases the cost of government social welfare programs, increasing incomes for the lowest-paid and encourages people to join the workforce rather than pursuing money through illegal means. The minimum wage also encourages efficiency and automation of industry and removes low paying jobs, forcing workers to train for, and move to, higher paying jobs (Fox, 2006). Many believe that minimum wage increases cause adverse employment effects. Three possible reasons minimum wages do not affect employment were suggested by Alan Blinder: higher wages may reduce turnover, and hence training costs; raising the minimum wage may â€Å"render moot† the potential problem of recruiting workers at a higher wage than current workers; and minimum wage workers might represent such a small proportion of a business’s cost that the increase is too small to matter. He admits that he does not know if these are correct, but argues that â€Å"the list demonstrates that one can accept the new empirical findings and still be a card-carrying economist. † (Blinder, 1996). In discussing the minimum wage, Robert M. Solow, a Nobel laureate in economics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, told the New York Times, â€Å"The main thing about (minimum wage) research is that the evidence of job loss is weak. And the fact that the evidence is weak suggests that the impact on jobs is small. † (Norlund, 1997) The American public supports increasing the minimum wage by a solid margin. Nearly every survey finds overwhelming support for raising the minimum wage. For example, a poll recently conducted by the website Politico, conducted in March of 2013 found that 71% of Americans backed an increase in the minimum wage. Opposition of an Increase in the Minimum Wage Opponents of the minimum wage claim it hurts small business more than large business. By increasing wages, business owners must use their profits to increase wages or increase their prices. Cheaper labor helps small businesses employ younger and more inexperienced workers to perform less skill intensive work. It’s also argued that it may cause price inflation due to businesses increasing the price of goods sold. Small businesses with limited payroll budges cannot offer their most valuable employees fair and attractive wages above unskilled workers paid the artificially high minimum, and see a rising hurdle-cost of adding workers (Jr. , 2005). Some opponents claim that the goals minimum wage was created to accomplish have not been met. In some instances employment has decreased more than the increase in wages and thereby overall earnings are still reduced. Businesses are forced to hire fewer employees because paid wages have increased to meet the minimum. Some studies have shown that few low-wage workers actually come from families in poverty. Thus, minimum wage is more often imposed on the teenage worker with their first job than on people who would otherwise be unemployed. Additional arguments against the minimum wage include how it is ineffective compared to other methods such as basic income (or negative income tax), which is a system of social security that periodically provides each citizen with a sum of money that is sufficient to live on. This does not include a means test, the richest and the poorest would receive it as something similar to a dividend from the government. A guaranteed minimum income is another proposed system of social welfare. It’s similar to basic income, but it is normally conditional and subject to a means test. A refundable tax credit, such as the Earned Income Tax Credit is another alternative for minimum wage, which some claim was an effective stimulus for the economy. Opinion I feel very torn between the pros and cons of the minimum wage debate. I feel that a living wage for employees is necessary to ensure that poverty levels are avoided. In addition to avoiding poverty, fair wages for all is essential to reducing wage discrimination. However, I find that the increased wage paid to employees by small businesses can be crippling to their profits, particularly in our current economy and with how frequently small businesses fail. Conclusion Both sides present valid arguments, so what is the solution? One solution would be to raise the minimum wage to an acceptable higher level for â€Å"adult† workers, while retaining exceptions to allow the businesses to hire teenagers, students and temporary or seasonal workers at a lower minimum wage. This would protect those most impacted by a low minimum wage, families attempting to survive on a single minimum wage salary, while protecting the jobs of traditional â€Å"minimum wage† workers by allowing businesses to hire them at the previous rates. Though this solution has its flaws, however, employers might use a wage disparity as an incentive to hire more young workers at lower rates, leaving older workers jobless. This solution and others are highly debated by politicians and citizens and truly, no solution has been found. In time, the federal minimum wage will rise, as is dictated by laws both purposed and in effect currently. Perhaps a better solution for small businesses impacted would be a tax subsidy to balance the loss in profits from an increased minimum wage. It would increase hiring rates, and would keep small businesses at their previous profit levels. Employment would increase in a sector, small business, which our economy greatly relies on and provide those companies with incentive to increase their labor force. How to cite The Minimum Wage Debate, Papers

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Commercial Entrepreneurship And Social Entrepreneurship Commerce Essay Example For Students

Commercial Entrepreneurship And Social Entrepreneurship Commerce Essay In this session, I will discourse about the difference of commercial entrepreneurship and societal entrepreneurship. Normally, societal enterprisers and commercial enterprisers are holding similarity every bit good as differences. There will besides certain issues sing societal entrepreneurship to be discussed in this session. This chapter will concentrate on the motive factor of societal entrepreneurship. There will besides brief treatment about motive of commercial entrepreneurship in order to demo the different motive factor between two types of entrepreneurship. The first definition of entrepreneurship was defined at 250 old ages ago. The first important function of the entrepreneurship was foremost recognized by 18th century man of affairs Richard Cantillon ( 1931 ) . He described enterpriser as morticians engaged in market exchange at their ain hazard for the intent of doing a net income. Dave Roberts and Christine Woods ( 2005 ) has defined entrepreneurship base on two position which included academic and practician. James A ; Howard A ; Jane ( 2006 ) stated entrepreneurship purposes at making profitable operations ensuing in private addition. This contrast is, of class, overstated. Commercial entrepreneurship does profit society in the signifier of new and valuable goods, services, and occupations, and can hold transformative societal impacts. Such transmutations can even be a impulsive motive for some commercial enterprisers. Kao ( 1993 ) has defined that Entrepreneurship is the procedure of adding something new and something different for the intent of making wealth for the person and adding value to society. An enterpriser has to be originative and advanced in order to hold a sustainable growth concern. In fact, enterprisers are considered as one of the chief subscribers to state economic system growing. Entrepreneurial activity benefit community and society as it creates occupation chance, income, merchandises and services with his creativeness and invention to us. Outline1 2.2.2 Role of Social Entrepreneurship2 2.2.3 Social Entrepreneurship as Net income or Non-profit Organization?3 2.3 Motivation for Entrepreneurship4 2.3.1 Need for Achievement5 2.3.2 Locus of Control6 2.3.3 Vision7 2.3.4 Desire for Independence8 2.3.5 Passion9 2.3.6 Drive10 2.4 Motivation for Social Entrepreneurship11 2.4.1 Altruism12 2.4.2 Traits and Skills13 2.4.3 Behavior14 2.4.4 Context and background15 A theoretical account of societal entrepreneurial intentionsmodel of SE intentions.png16 2.4.5 Opportunity Perception and Recognition17 2.4.6 Personal values 2.2.2 Role of Social Entrepreneurship Presents, Social entrepreneurship is likely to go more of import than commercial entrepreneurship as there are many societal jobs occurred. Seelos and Mair ( 2005 ) defined societal enterpriser create theoretical accounts in order to carry through rudimentss human needs that bing selling have failed to fulfill. Social enterprisers are holding the mission to alter society. James A ; Howard A ; Jane ( 2006 ) , stated that societal entrepreneurship as advanced, societal value making activity that can happen within or across the non-profit, concern, or authorities sectors. They have farther elaborated the construct for deeper apprehension for the construct by developing four variables which are market failure, mission, resource mobilisation, and public presentation measuring. To certain extend, societal endeavors correct market failure whereby a job for the commercial enterpriser is an chance for the societal enterpriser. The writers have showed that proposition that market failure wil l make differing entrepreneurial chances for societal and commercial entrepreneurships. The Mission for the societal entrepreneurship is purposes to make societal value for the public good by assisting and benefits the populace. Human capital for the societal entrepreneurship will be a critical factor finding the success of societal entrepreneurship. Normally, the economic sciences of a societal entrepreneurial venture frequently make it hard to counterbalance staff every bit competitively as in commercial markets. Therefore, employees who work for societal endeavors frequently hope to have non-financial compensation for their work. Human and fiscal resource mobilisation will be a prevalent difference and will take to basically different attacks in pull offing fiscal and human resources. It would be hard to mensurate the public presentation of a societal endeavor merely like commercial endeavor as we can mensurate it in footings of profitableness and market portion. Therefore, publi c presentation measuring of societal impact will stay a cardinal discriminator, perplexing answerability and stakeholder dealingss. My Justice, Resource mobilisation, it is non about the compensation, it is about self- willingness to work for the societal endeavor. Dave and Christine ( 2005 ) have defined societal entrepreneurships base on two position which are academic position and practician position. From the academic position, they stated that Construction, rating and chase of chances for societal alteration, while walking anecdotes, with new thoughts to turn to major jobs, who are relentless in the chase of their vision, people who merely will non take no for an reply and who will non give up until they spread their thoughts every bit far as they perchance can, is derived from practician position. There is no individual manner of qualifying socially entrepreneurial ventures ( Juliet and George, 2005 ) . Heidi A ; Candida A ; A ; Elaine ( 2009 ) explained the landscape of societal entrepreneurship which includes societal purpose ventures and enterprising not-for-profits. Regardless of net income orientation, societal enterprisers place chances to work out societal jobs, both people and society jobs. Yohanan ( N.D ) has differentiated two major attacks in the account on societal entrepreneurship. Both major attacks emphasis on the societal desirableness of the enterprises studied, but there are some different facets. The first attack by Brown and Letts ( 2004 ) is focused on purposes and results. Social entrepreneurs put advanced attempts to work out relentless societal jobs of poorness and marginalisation that, to some extent, have been successful in increasing their impact and catalysing societal transmutation. Another attack which is done by Alvy and Lees ( 2000 ) is based on chances and demands. Peoples who realize where there is an chance to fulfill some unmet need that the province public assistance system will non or can non run into and who gather together the necessary resources. 2.2.3 Social Entrepreneurship as Net income or Non-profit Organization? In the findings done by Pomerantz ( 2003 ) , he stated that societal entrepreneurship as the development of advanced, mission- supporting, earned income, occupation making or licensing, ventures undertaken by single societal enterprisers, non-profit-making organisations, or not-for-profits in association with for net incomes. From his point of position, a societal endeavor can either be non net income or net income generating organisation. For illustration, Margaret Cossette used a grant of $ 400 to turn a little public-sector into not-for net income endeavor which provides place attention for rural seniors in America. When needs or demand is increased, Cossette did nt hold adequate capital to get by with the state of affairs. A NFP organisation is non measure up for bank loans. Therefore, Cossette turn her venture, Missouri Home Care, into the for-profit sphere in order to use for loans to use her services. In fact, there are many more instances that clearly lie on the for-profit si de of the divide but are readily serve as societal entrepreneurship by reputable observers. Basically, societal endeavor is non-profit-making organisation which benefits society without deriving any net income. However, Gregory ( 1998 ) states that there is increasing figure of not-for-profits have been seeking extra grosss by acting more like for-profit organisations. For illustration, Salvage the Children, an international development bureau, sells a line of work forces s neckwear. Such ventures are for bring forthing the hard currency in originative manner. The profitableness is linked with societal entrepreneurship for certain instances, but the societal terminals still remain the dominant end of these ventures. Essay about Obamacare Or Against It? Essay ( 1 ) The individual who attempts to innovatively gain society entirely, in a manner that involves that society, at hazard of personal loss. ( 2 ) The individual who attempts to innovatively gain society entirely, in a manner that involves that society, at hazard of predating personal net income. ( 3 ) The individual who attempts to innovatively gain society by gaining himself, in a manner that involves that society, at hazard of incurring personal loss. ( 4 ) The individual who attempts to innovatively gain society by gaining himself, in a manner that involves that society, at hazard of waiving personal net income. ( 5 ) The individual who attempts to innovatively gain himself by gaining society, in a manner that involves that society, at hazard of personal loss. ( 6 ) The individual who attempts to innovatively gain himself by gaining society, in a manner that involves that society, at hazard of predating personal profit. By Williams, Wee Liang, Teck Meng ( pg, 359, 2005 ) The diminishing grade of selfless in societal entrepreneurship is differing in footings of hazard and invention. 2.4.2 Traits and Skills Thompson, Alvy ( 2000 ) suggest that vision and fortitude are necessary traits to implement a societal venture. Boschee ( 1998 ) see fairness, passion, lucidity of intent, bravery, committedness, values, client focal point, willingness to be after, ability to believe like a concern, scheme, and flexibleness, required in societal enterprisers as critical success factor to successfully ship on societal entrepreneurial activities. Social enterprisers who portion the same traits may differ in the societal impact of their enterprises. Drayton ( 2002 ) stated that entrepreneurial quality ( pg.124 ) is the key to separate the impact. Entrepreneurial quality is a really particular and scarce trait. It is much more than selfless motive and other antecedently mentioned traits. It is the critical motive to alter the whole society shared by merely a really little per centum of the population. 2.4.3 Behavior There are few behavioural properties which have been associated with societal entrepreneurship: bravery to accept societal unfavorable judgment, less failure-anxiety, receptiveness to others feelings, doggedness, communicating accomplishments, ability to look trusty, creativeness, ability to fulfill clients demands, foal oriented, and working capacity ( McLeod, 1997 ; Prabhu, 1999 ) . After all, these behaviours can be applied to commercial entrepreneurial behaviour every bit good. However, there is one exclusion which is the difference between commercial entrepreneurial behaviour and societal entrepreneurial behaviour which is receptiveness to others feeling, or in a simple word, empathy. Mentioning to the Webster s lexicon, empathy is defined as the ability to portion in another s emotions or feelings. A societal enterpriser is caring and helpful. Mair and Noboa ( 2003 ) found that empathy can be considered as a trait ( dispositional empathy ) or a behaviour ( situational empath y ) . The writers so see empathy as a cognitive and emotional ancestor. 2.4.4 Context and background In add-on to traits and behaviours, context and background are besides of import facets to understand enterprisers and their enterprises ( Bird, 1988 ) . The background and life of societal enterprisers is holding great impact on enabling the desirableness for them to get down up societal endeavor ( Prabhu, 1999 ) . My parents raise me with the spirit of charity and giving , I felt uneasy about the jobs of the hapless and I am sensitive to other people s feeling are common response of societal enterprisers. Mair and Noboa ( 2003 ) argued that background and context explain a big portion of societal enterprisers enhanced degree of trueness to their values and doctrine, which is typically associated with an elevated degree of moral judgement. A theoretical account of societal entrepreneurial intentionsmodel of SE intentions.png Mair and Noboa ( 2003 ) have developed a theoretical account of societal entrepreneurial purposes. They defined their independent variables as emotional: empathy ( behaviour ) , cognitive: moral judgement ( Background and Context consequence ) . These variables will so enable single to hold perceived desirableness to develop behavioural purpose such as receptiveness for other s feeling. When they have the behaviour, they will hold the societal entrepreneurial behaviour and they decide to get down up societal endeavor. There is another enabling factor such as self-efficacy and societal support which will further develop sensed feasibleness. After that, single with sensed feasibleness will come in the same modus operandi as sensed desirableness. Empathy and moral judgement are positively linked with sensed societal venture desirableness, while self efficacy beliefs and societal support are positively linked with sensed societal venture feasibleness. 2.4.5 Opportunity Perception and Recognition Krueger, Kickul, Gundry, Verma, and Wilson, ( 2007 ) stated that mental theoretical accounts is the component that provide a set of properties or features that define what is considered as an chance. Percept of chance is categorized with two critical ancestors: ( 1 ) is the action expected to give a net positive effects or effects and ( 2 ) is the action really within or beyond our control. Prevalence of demands in human society if frequently indentified as a major ground for the being of societal chance. Harmonizing to Human Development study ( 2007,2005 ) , there are about 3 billion people live below the poorness line, gaining less than $ 2 per twenty-four hours. This phenomenon will convey a batch of negative effects such as famishment, increased condemnable rate, and force. For illustration, there are 50,000 deceases per twenty-four hours which are linked to poverty-related causes. ( World Health Organization, 1999 ) . The job of poorness are discernible and it creates many chanc e for societal enterprisers. Behavioural Theory stated that enterprisers draw a bead oning to better the quality of life are likely to place and undertake the most prevailing jobs because these jobs are most sensitive to them. 2.4.6 Personal values Hemingway ( 2005 ) found that values operate at different degrees and personal values act as one of the drivers of behaviour. He besides stated that qualitative research would be suited in acquiring deeper degree of understanding that how personal values may be driving societal duty. To state that a individual has a value is to state that he has an digesting prescriptive or proscriptive belief that a specific manner of behaviour or end-stat of being is preferred to an opposite manner of behaviour or end-state. This belief transcends attitudes toward nonsubjective and toward state of affairss ; it is a criterion that ushers and determines action, attitudes toward aims and state of affairss, political orientation, presentations of ego to other, ratings, judgements, justifications, comparings of ego with others, and efforts to act upon other. Valuess serve as adjectival, ego-defensive, cognition and self-actualizing maps. ( Rockeach, 1973, pg.25 ) . Furthermore, values is linked with political orientation, which Wright stated that values will be one s counsel on distinguishing what is right or incorrect and eventually take to positive ends in life. ( Wright, 1971 ) . Personal Valuess are indentified in different degrees such as single, organisational, institutiona l, social and planetary values ( Agle and Caldwell, 1999 ) . But in my surveies, I will concentrate on single or personal degree of values.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Once And Future King By White Essays - The Once And Future King

Once And Future King By White Experience is Everything In the book, The Once and Future King, T.H. White shows the importance that education relies heavily upon ones own personal experiences. When Merlyn is called on to tutor Wart, an adopted child, he uses this exact learning method on Wart. Merlyn, who is a magician, uses transformation as a his learning tool. Merlyn turns Wart into different animals to show Wart lessons of life. Through each transformation Wart experiences different forms of power, each being a part of how he should rule as king. When Wart experiences each of these different stages of lesson he finds out from Mr. P that mind power is nothing, from the wild goose he learns freedom, and the badger teaches him to accept what you have. When Wart is transformed into a fish Merlyn takes him to go talk to the master of the moat, Mr. P. This is the first transformation that Wart will learn his first lesson in. When Wart approaches Mr. P he already senses a great deal of danger because of his massive size and strength. Wart was so flabbergasted by his enormous structure that he could not think of anything to ask Mr. P. Then Mr. P replies with his view on life, a simple statement, "There is only power. Power is of the individual mind, but the mind's power is not enough" (52). Mr. P is showing the importance of physical power over the minds with this comment he makes . What Mr. P states astonishes Wart so much that Wart becomes speechless and does not move from where he is positioned. As Mr. P teaches his theories of life he becomes very agitated with Wart and Pronounces, "I think you ought to go away really almost at once in case my disillusioned mouth should suddenly determine to introduce you to my gills, which have teeth too" (52). As Wart is listening to Mr. P say this he is stunned by the words he is saying to him. Wart is astonished that Mr. P is thinking about eating him. At this instance Wart has enough time to turn around and swim away just in the nick-of-time to escape from Mr. P. Another one of Wart's transformation places him in a flock of geese. These geese are a peace loving race that never kill. Wart learns all about being a geese from other geese. Wart learns most of his lessons from a goose named Lyo-lyok. Wart and Lyo-lyok talk about how the geese communicate and most everything about geese. When Wart asks, "Are we fighting people?" (169). Wart and Lyo-lyok get in an argument. Lyo-lyok refuses to listen to Warts explanation to his question. Lyo-lyok did not understand Wart's point of view. Once Wart explains to Lyo-lyok his situation, she then helps Wart in his understanding of the goose. Wart learns that there is one leader to a group who is called The Admiral. He guides them on their flight south for the winter. The Admiral receives his position because of his knowledge of the southern migration route. He is only elected if all the geese in the migration group agree he is capable of doing the job. During the flight the geese obey his choices, since he is their elected leader. But his power ends once they are back on the ground, where he is only looked upon as a respected elder. Lyo-lyok teaches Wart about this and tells him, "this is how Great-uncle became an admiral" (171). Through out Wart experiences as a goose he learns alot about why the geese are not a group that fights within their species. Lyo-lyok tells Wart that the only reason humans fight amounts each other is that we set boundaries and that is what causes fighting. In the final transformation Wart visits the badger. The badger is a great philosopher who enjoys giving scholarly commentaries, this is why Merlyn wants this to be Warts last transformation. Merlyn explains that, "except for Archimedes, he is the most learned creature I know. You will like him" (183). While Wart is visiting him, he explains a story he has written on the creation of the animal kingdom's hierarchy. In his commentary he explains how man answered God's riddle and is awarded control over the animal kingdom. The Badger explains to Wart, in his view, that God created embryos and that the embryos had a chance to pick out three different characteristics to change about themselves. When man approaches God

Sunday, November 24, 2019

No and Negation Words in Spanish

No and Negation Words in Spanish Changing a Spanish sentence to a negative can be as easy as placing no before the main verb. Spanish is different than English in that Spanish can require the use of the double negative under some circumstances. No as an Adjective or Adverb In Spanish, the most common negative word is no, which can be used as an adverb or adjective. As an adverb negating a sentence, it always comes immediately before the verb, unless the verb is preceded by an object, in which case it comes immediately before the object. No como. (I am not eating.) No quiere ir al centro. (She doesnt want to go downtown.) No lo quiero. (I dont want it.)  ¿No te gusta la bicicleta? (Dont you like the bicycle?) When no is used as an adjective, or as an adverb modifying an adjective or another adverb, it typically is the equivalent of the English not or of a prefix such as non. In those cases, it comes immediately before the word it modifies. Note that while no is sometimes used to mean not in this way, this use isnt terribly common, and usually other words or sentence constructions are used. El senador est por la polà ­tica de la no violencia. (The senator is for the policy of nonviolence.) Tiene dos computadoras no usadas. (He has two unused computers.) Mi hermano es poco inteligente. (My brother is unintelligent.) Ese doctor es sin principios. (That doctor is unprincipled.) Other Negating Words Spanish also has several negative words that are frequently used. They include nada (nothing), nadie (nobody, no one), ninguno (none), nunca (never), and jams (never). Ninguno, depending on its usage, also comes in the forms ningà ºn, ninguna, ningunos and ningunas, although the plural forms are seldom used. Nada vale tanto como el amor. (Nothing is worth as much as love.) Nadie quiere salir. (Nobody wants to leave.) Ninguna casa tiene ms televisores que la mà ­a. (No house has more televisions than mine.) Nunca bebemos la cerveza. (We never drink beer). Jams te veo. (I never see you.) One aspect of Spanish that may seem unusual to English speakers is the use of the double negative. If one of the negative words listed above (such as nada or nadie) is used after the verb, a negative (often no) also must be used before the verb. Such usage is not considered redundant. When translating to English, you shouldnt translate both negatives as negatives. No sà © nada. (I dont know anything, or I know nothing.) No conozco a nadie. (I dont know anybody, or I know nobody.) A nadie le importa nada. (Nothing matters to anybody.)

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Business Plan for E-commenrce company Coursework

Business Plan for E-commenrce company - Coursework Example In relation to the study the company which has been selected is MyName-MyShop, an online business that will focus on customizing its products with labels that its clients identify with to attract and retain a large pool of customers. It plans to deal in beauty products like chains, necklaces, earrings, wrist chains and caps to start with. These products appear to be so common in the market but less personalized with names that buyers find appealing to them. It therefore gives buyers a chance to have their various products designed with the names they prefer engraved on them. The mission statement of the company shall be â€Å"Committed to letting the small things we have bring happiness in big ways.† This is reflective of the nature of the products being offered in the market by the company. The characteristic customization is what would actually â€Å"create happiness in big ways† for the clients. Working to attain this is imperative in enabling the company to uphold q uality production at all times. Current trends indicate that the sale of customized beauty products in the US market contribute a significant 5.5 billion US dollars to the national economy annually. This is all inclusive comprising of various products such as caps, wrist watches, anniversary jewelry and so forth. Further, the market is relatively fragmented and seasonal in nature. Thus during holidays, sales tend to soar to very high levels. This is attributed to the gift giving practice that occurs during this time. Also, the market is categorized in to three main echelons: low end, middle end and premium end. In the upper echelon, there are companies such as the BlueNile while the middle end is dominated by Best Gem Diamond Company. MyName-Myshop seeks to assume the upper echelon position because it would place particular emphasis on high quality production. Business Goals and Objectives The business aims at starting its operation in ten major cities and expands to cover the whole nation in five months, five states in a year and 50 states in the whole year. This expansion would enable it to attain its goals within a specified time period. In addition, it would enable it to explore the available niches and maintain an upward growth. Business Models The business model will focus in providing quality and affordable trendy products to customers. These trendy products will be customized to customer’s specifications. According to Pinson (2004), customization of products would be imperative in enabling the business to maintain

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Operations Managment of Fullers Brewery and Vue Cinemas Term Paper

Operations Managment of Fullers Brewery and Vue Cinemas - Term Paper Example In considering the operational differences between the two businesses, the essay will now give a compassion of the operational aspects considered in each of the four variables of the four V model: Volume In the first instance, the volume of an operation simply represents the level of production and will dictate the overall approach used towards manufacture or delivery of a good or service (Fitzsimmons and Fitzsimmons, 2008). In the case of Fuller’s Brewery volume can be measured in a number of ways but always relates back to the delivery of a physical product. In essence, from an operational perspective, the volume is measured in liquid volume measurements. From a pure scale perspective, while the operations of Fuller’s Brewery are concentrated in the Southeast, distribution takes place on a national basis requiring an operation in scale which is able to accommodate such demands. By stark contrast, Vue as a service provider is unable to measure volume on such a simple c ommodity basis, instead, volume here relates the number of â€Å"guest experiences† in other words, the number of tickets sold to customers in a given period. While this may be true of the main product, it should also be indicated that Vue makes a significant amount of profit from the sale of ancillary products such as beverages and snacks, items which may be easier to quantify with traditional measures of volume. Like, Fuller’s Brewery, Vue operates on a national basis. However, as a service provider, such large volumes require a more localized approach to supply, rather than a centralized production and distribution model as seen in the former business. Variety represents the number of products or services provided by an operator (Slack et al, 2010). Here a broad or narrow view may be taken of the variety of products produced within an operation. For instance taking the operation at Fuller’s Brewery, at the broad level of the operation can be split down into j ust two key product areas, cask ales made for the licensed premises business and canned and bottled beers designed to be sold from non-licensed premises such as the supermarket.

Monday, November 18, 2019

Math and children Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Math and children - Essay Example Symbols such as circles, squares, triangles are good for patterning. This learning activity is best suited for grade four levels. This symbol patterning intends to expose children to sequences. This concept will use an analogy of a picnic table as an introduction to the sequence. Students get insight as they use T-charts to the idea of pattern rules. Once the student is able to solve the problem, they continually develop cognitive ability to understand mathematical concepts that are more abstract. In this activity student will understand relationship between numbers, figures, tables, and diagrams as mathematics models. This will work only if the student has experience in extending simple number pattern at a lower grade (Ministry of Education, 2008). For instance, patterning can be used to expose children in elementary level to Pascal triangle. Student investigates the pattern of rectangular number and sums of the triangle. This activity may involve delivery of small toys to a prizewinner at a fun fair in several days. In day one chipmunk will be delivered, day two the same with two blue jays. In day, three repeat of previous with additional three puppies. This may continue for ten days and the Pascal concept will be easily understood (Ministry of Education, 2008). In conclusion, patterning plays a great role in student perception towards numbers. It depends on the skills of the particular pattern introduced at a lower grade. Therefore, it is an interdependent process. Use of pattern in elementary mathematics is a progressive process. A pattern in a higher grade depends on what pattern was introduced at a lower grade level. Ministry of Education. (2008). Patterning and Algebra, Grades 4 to 6. Retrieved from

Friday, November 15, 2019

Competitive Advantages Over Spaghetti House In Hk Marketing Essay

Competitive Advantages Over Spaghetti House In Hk Marketing Essay Abstract and aim By using personal survey questionnaire, 150-200 students of City University of Hong Kong will be asked, in order to find out the competitive advantage of Pizza hut and compare with Spaghetti House for places to buy food in names and addresses from Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and New Territories. Addresses were area code to census tracts. Based on individual factors are traditional explanations for the inability of some people to change dietary habits. This study examines the food service by Pizza Hut and its competitive advantages over Spaghetti House Aim This work aims to find out the successful factor of other competitors and to provide suggestions and evidences in order to increase the sales and profits of Pizza Hut by improve Pizza Huts services and its competitive advantages. Background / outline Hong Kong is an international city. There are seven million residents and lots of tourists would love to shop in Hong Kong thus there are different social cultures exist including diet habit. Foreign food is playing an important role in Hong Kong to suit customers different needs. There are a lot of western restaurant in Hong Kong such as, Spaghetti House, McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) and Pizza Hut etc. Lots of people especially teenagers like Pizza Hut very much, they love to eat western foods, so Pizza Hut attracts a bulk amount of regular customer for a long period. Pizza Hut is an American famous restaurant chain, offering different styles of pizza along with side dishes including pasta, buffalo wings, breadsticks, and garlic bread, Pizza Hut is a subsidiary of Yum! Brands, Inc., the worlds largest restaurant company, with approximately 34,000 restaurants, delivery-carry out units, kiosks in 100 countries. Pizza Hut has been serving Hong Kong for almost 30 years. The first Pizza Hut restaurant opened in Hong Kong in 1981 with its first delivery service began in 1992, while the business of Pizza Hut is still increasing every year. Since 1987, Hong Kong Pizza Hut franchise has owned by the Jardine Matheson Group. At present, Hong Kong Pizza Hut has a total of over 70 branches and more than 3000 employees. The main competitor of Pizza Hut is Spaghetti House. Spaghetti House is also a famous western restaurant in Hong Kong. The menu of Spaghetti House is similar to Pizza Hut; its target market is a little different from Pizza Hut. Pizza Hut vs Spaghetti House  ¼Ã… ½Which one is more famous?  ¼Ã… ½Which one do customers prefer?  ¼Ã… ½Which products are more competitive? We hope to find the answer during this project. In this project, well analyze the 7Ps of market strategies of Pizza Hut and take the personal survey in order to find out the competitive advantage of Pizza Hut and the comparison with Spaghetti House in Hong Kong. More, we can also know that which one is better and more famous. Secondly, we focus on physical evidences from customers opinions to improve the environments of both restaurants. Finally, we refer to the result gained from questionnaires to make the recommendations and suggest new marketing strategies to Pizza Hut for the improvement. Objective and research questions Study the demographics of target customers Determine which attributes of pizza are the most important to the customers Determine the preference of product package by the customers Determine the acceptance of new products by our target customers Identify the purchase behavior of the customers Identify which promotion channels are the most effective Measure the satisfactory level of customers towards Pizza Hut Critical Literature Review Western fast food chains development and impact in Asia Majority scholar to believe food is more affected by culture to restrict in consumption product. As far as relatively other products concerned, that is more difficult to change the customers behavior such as U.S breakfasts manufacturer Kelloggs to spend 20 years time in Japan, ability success to entry use as major rice and kelp soup make breakfast of consumption market. Some country and district such as Japan and Hong Kongs children as regards coke, pizza and spaghetti etc foreign countrys food never again, but that local food is accompany children to grow and combine in local culture. From the above, Pizza Hut can identify market opportunities and develop targeted promotion plans. Therefore, research and development professionals stay on HK of competitor initiatives and explore demand for fast food products. Advertising agencies working with clients in the food industries understand the product buyer to develop messages and images that compel consumers to purchase Italian food products. Business development executives understand the dynamics of the market and identify possible partnerships. Finally, information and research center librarians provide market researchers, brand and product managers and other colleagues with the vital information they need to do their jobs more effectively. A 360 ° View of Fast Food and Impulse Habits Here has huge market growth potential for manufacturers and retailers to development in fast food chains and fast food services. According to the ACNielsen survey result, citizens average monthly purchase frequency in fast food, impulse food and drinks is around 20. Monthly Purchase Frequency for Impulse Food and Drinks in Hong Kong In addition, in a global consumer survey conducted over the Internet by ACNielsen in October 2004, 30 percent of Asia Pacific consumers claimed to eat takeaway at least once a week, closely behind the US (33%). As the result, eight of global top tens fast food consumption market from Asia Pacific, and Hong Kong ranks is the worlds No.1, have a fast food than traditional 26% higher than the United States , hard upon is Malaysia (59%) and the Philippines is 54%, 12% said never again to eat fast food, have 35% eat fast food even more. ACNielsens data also showed that although in the United States have 97% of adults do not mind eat fast food, but this data has also been Asia exceeded. From this result, fast food culture can popular in Hong Kong is about the Hong Kong peoples to demand fast and convenient lifestyle. Many people require swift and convenient, hurried cadence of life may not have time to cook at home, it affects our lifestyle, make to popularity of fast food culture in Hong Kong. As the same time because of the convenient location, the price is cheaper. In additional, because may about Hong Kong peoples personality, most are not satisfied to spend too much time on waiting. However, teenagers usually to eating fast food more during the noon or after school. While an adults to eat breakfast is out of home that provides an opportunity for suppliers and retailers. So, fast food culture is the most sales in Hong Kong. Top 10 Global Markets for Weekly Fast Food Consumption Hong Kong 61% Malaysia 59% Philippines 54% Singapore 50% Thailand 44% China 41% India 37% US 35% Australia 30% New Zealand 29% Source: ACNielsen Online Survey, October 2004 Modeling repurchases frequency and customer satisfaction for fast food outlets In this competition environment of Hong Kong, leading the company is necessary customer that requires spending many resources to enhance customer loyalty and satisfaction with the company. Therefore, the company need understanding what factor is affect customers behavior and satisfaction, and then try to improve the customer services quality in the fast food industry, thus help make more loyalty customers. Improving service quality has become one of the most important strategies a service provider can use to differentiate itself from its competitors and thus position itself more effectively in the marketplace (Cronin and Taylor, 1992). Rust and Oliver (1994) suggested that quality is one dimension on which satisfaction is based. Although many studies provide a theoretical basis for studying the relationship between waiting time, consumer satisfaction and return frequency, they have failed to investigate the relationship between waiting time and the return frequency. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of waiting time and other service quality factors on customer satisfaction and return frequency in the fast food industry. As waiting time appears to be a vital factor of the services in fast food operations, therefore, fast food industry is chosen for our research purpose. Based on a survey of fast food outlets, we formulate a repurchase frequency model and a satisfaction model. The repurchase frequency model describes the relationship between the number of return visits and service quality factors including waiting time. The overall satisfaction model describes the relationship between the customers overall satisfaction level, the waiting time and other service quality factors. These models will help managers to identify root causes for customer satisfaction and loyalty and thus enable them to make focused improvements in critical areas to improve profitability. Hong Kong fast food culture Hong Kong is a delicacies paradise, and also is a fast food paradise, various Chinese and Western fast food restaurant at Hong Kong everywhere, lunch take-out to office are also has good idea or business. Hong Kong fast cadence of life, high working performance, many things have to stress efficiency and effectiveness of demand. It is because fast food more emphasize fast, therefore many foods have prepared cooked and heating for consumers. So, fast food culture offers fast and convenient especially popular for peoples. Nowadays, the purposes to co-operate for healthy fashion, fast food already changed into emphasize foods quality and sustenance, many foods have consumer to pay or order then start cook. Therefore, foods will more fresh and higher quality than prepared cooked. At the other hard, fast food chain to be particular about decoration than before, show the high class and city lifestyle; Detrude of fast-food restaurants in recent years, hot pot, iron meals and other food types, making customers to stay longer in the fast-food restaurants, but also because of the fast-food restaurants to make food choices many more customers are willing to patronize fast food restaurants. A financial tsunami to assist development fast food industry Although global financial tsunami cause economic recession, but fast food always is catering trades exotic flowers, Pizza Hut, Burger King, McDonalds and Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) these fast food chains have grow a business volume in this period. Cafà © De Coral, Pizza Hut etc. also want to development this period. Due to economic crisis affected unemployment and so on reason, thus affected consumers confidence. However, relatives enhance of fast foods attraction, increasing peoples in order to save times or money abandoned traditional restaurant meals, and tend to choice fast food. Therefore, fast food chain has obtained more market. Form the above; Pizza Hut should continue its diversification strategy to gain more market share. It should incorporate or develop healthier food include low-carbohydrate pizzas to satisfy the needs of different customer. If it is able to stay ahead of the competition in this aspect, they will have a strong competitive advantage over other companies. Service quality in the fast food industry Service quality has become a predominant part of all advanced organizations strategic plans. Increasing attention paid to service quality has resulted in more progress and profit for organizations. At an international marketing level, in a struggle for a share of market, managers have to understand and know how to modify their operations for success in the various cultures of Hong Kong. From the above reason, can organization provide good service; staffs quality and skills have important influence. Therefore, enhance staff with the training and improve the quality of services, Including improves the quality of staff and customer service and provide effective services such as staff is advised to review the guests a la carte in order to reduce opportunities for error, the menu and dishes can be coded to facilitate data input, restaurant customers should be informed in advance of waiting or cooking time and adoption a recognized service standards and guidelines etc. These can be satisfying consumers needs and attraction their have to patronize. Research methods/ Methodologies Category Options The degree to which the research question has been crystallized 1. Exploratory study 2. Formal study The method of data collection Monitoring Communication Study The power of the researcher to produce effects in the variables under study Experimental Ex post facto The purpose of the study Reporting Descriptive Causal-Explanatory The time dimension Cross-sectional Longitudinal The topical scope Breadth and depth of the study Case Statistical study The research environment Field setting Simulation The participants perceptional awareness of the research activity Actual routine The main purpose of our study is needed to find out the comparison of Pizza Hut and Spaghetti house. We need to collect the primary data and secondary data to analysis Pizza Huts 7Ps mainly. (Product, Price, Place, Promotion, People, Process and Physical environment) First, we collect the secondary data from internet to know backgrounds, histories, objective, and the annual reports of Pizza Hut and Spaghetti House etc. Then, we collect other useful information on the internet. Afterwards, we go to libraries to find books such as population information and literature. After that, we use Self- Administered Surveys (Intercept and computer) and Personal Interview (Questionnaire) to collect the primary data. Indeed that information is related to our objective. To collect primary data, we will design a set of questionnaire about 7Ps. The method is taken by samples in Hong Kong (different regions in Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Territory). The proportion will be 60:80:60, a half of male and female. It can be avoided unfair saturation. The sample size will be 200 that it can be reduced bias. The age distribution limits are 10 to 40. Our survey method is face-to-face interview, after the interview well give them a gift. (Such as coupon) We can understand Pizza Huts competitive advantage through information and make the recommendations on new market strategies for Pizza Hut for further improvement. However, we have limited information in secondary data. In conclude, our information mainly come from primary data. Secondary data is collected from other peoples or organizations, general major secondary datas sources are internet and daily, moreover including survey, census and companys records. However, the primary data is reversing the secondary data, its major used in survey research works. Secondary datas advantages is save more collect datas time, because many background work may carried out or complete, such as some reviews and case studies was carried out, statistics and published book may used to media promotion. And about the secondary datas disadvantages, because the data sources not every is trusty, even authorities data may undependable. Secondary data can be obtained from two different research strands Quantitative and Qualitative. Quantitative included housing, social security, census and other related databases. Qualitative included focus groups transcripts, observation records, structured interviews, semi-structured, research-related documents and other personal. Any required respondent to complete the questionnaire by oneself is referred to as a self-administered survey. The most survey method is via use internet, fax, newspaper and e-mail, or via restaurant and shops feedback form. According to this self-administered survey is require some inaccurately questionnaire considerations, because have some respondent may cause sensitive question or other special reason thus to indiscriminate answer the questions. Self-administered surveys advantage is using anonymous form to answer the questionnaire, thus make the questionnaires answer have more effective and true. At the other hard, can make respondent more convenient to answer, and can eliminate the bias, the cost is more than telephone and personal interview cheaper. However, the most of self-administered survey also not actual to control who to answer questionnaire, the respondent may read other part of respondents answer, thus affect their feedback. A personal interview is one of direct research method that allows face to face conversation between an interviewer and the respondent at home, in shopping centers or everywhere. The use of personal interviews provides interviewers with opinions, and the process of interaction via understanding. Personal interviews allow analyses of thoughts, attitudes, behaviors, and opinions that have a high level of content validity (Babbie, 2006). Personal interviews are an appropriate qualitative data collection methodology in a variety of settings including exploration of issues in sensitive areas such as internal agency evaluations or internal agency satisfaction studies. Personal interviews allow participants to share qualitative information in a manner that allows freer expression of ideas and opinions. Advantages of personal interviews: 1. Qualitative data obtained from small sample. 2. Rapport leads to fewer refusals. 3. In-depth answers possible. 4. Observation improves accuracy. Disadvantage of personal interviews: 1. Invasion of privacy. 2. Interviewer bias. 3. Cost: Professional Interviewer expensive. 4. People not at home. 5. Can be slow and time consuming. 6. Postal surveys: Distributing or mailing door to door a written questionnaire to a sample of buyers for their completion at home or at work. Project Plan/Gantt Chart

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

The Essential Role of Servants in the Victorian Family :: Jane Eyre

The Essential Role of Servants in the Victorian Family    I desired liberty; for liberty I gasped; for liberty I uttered a prayer; it seemed scattered on the wind then faintly blowing. I abandoned it and framed a humbler supplication; for change, stimulus: that petition too seemed swept off into vague space; "Then" I cried, half desperate, "Grant me at least a new servitude." ( Bronte 93; ch. 10) Jane was not approaching any new territory when she wanted a new servitude. In fact 12.8 percent of the female population in England and Wales were engaged in domestic service in the nineteenth century (Horn 24). In nineteenth-century England, for any household with social pretensions at least one domestic servant was essential. The guide to the social status of a well-off Victorian family was the status of the domestics employed (Horn 18). Well-to-do families employed as large a staff as they could afford, while middle-class families held to the minimum of one (Horn 18). There were many types of servants, among them the housekeeper, and the nurse (Horn 49). On the female side of the domestics there were numerous servants. Since this essay is not concerned with male domestics, only a list of female domestics is provided. Female domestics would include the housekeeper, the cook, lady’s maid, nurse, housemaids, kitchenmaids, scullery-maids and laundry staff (Horn 49). The housekeeper was responsible for hiring and dismissing the female staff. The housekeeper was expected to be a "steady middle-aged woman . . . morally exemplary and assiduous to the harmony, comfort, and economy of the family" (Horn 54). Most often a housekeeper would stay with the same family for several years, forming a close bond with the family (Horn 57). If the family came into financial trouble a loyal housekeeper might stay behind as a general servant, while the rest of the staff would be dismissed. Housekeepers that worked for kin were either unmarried daughters of any age or widows (Hill 119). Middle and upper class families with children also kept a nurse maid. She would be a young girl under the age of twenty. The nursemaid was responsible for dressing and undressing the children, playing with them, and taking them out of a walk (Horn 66). The nursemaid was often spent more time with the children then their own mother. She acted as a mother figure, performing most if not all of the duties that belong to the mother.